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Bacterial infections played an important role in the field of oral diseases, in-depth insight of such oral diseases have given rise to the demand for antibacterial therapeutic strategies. Recently, microporous frameworks have attracted tremendous interest in antibacterial application due to their well-defined porous structures for drug delivery.

In addition, intensive efforts have been made to enhance the antibacterial performance of microporous frameworks, such as ion doping, photosensitizer incorporation as building blocks, and surface modifications.

This review article aims on the major recent developments of microporous frameworks for antibacterial applications against oral diseases. The first part of this paper puts concentration on the cutting-edge researches on the versatile antibacterial strategies of microporous materials via drug delivery, inherent activity, and structural modification. The second part discusses the antibacterial applications of microporous frameworks against oral diseases.

The applications of microporous frameworks not only have promising therapeutic potential to inhibit bacterial plaque-initiated oral infectious diseases, but also have a wide applicability to other biomedical applications. Oral diseases such as caries, periodontitis, and endodontic infections, attracted tremendous attentions all over the world since such diseases account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending. For example, an authoritative report claimed that dental caries and periodontitis were the first and 11th most prevalent causes of disease worldwide in 2016 Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA et al.

Besides local destruction of teeth and supporting Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA, these bacterial-related oral diseases were closely related with pulmonary disease (Manger et al.

Antibiotics are usually applied as major or auxiliary approach in treatment of such oral infectious diseases. Currently, the growing resistance of microorganisms to conventional antibiotics has become a public health problem and raises highly demand to look for more effective solutions (Wyszogrodzka et al. Amounts of antibacterial Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA such as metallic ions and natural extracts were alternatively applied in the antibacterial field (Li et al.

However, the inferior biocompatibility, short half-time period, and unexpected cytotoxicity limit the potential applications for these materials. Nowadays, there has been a continuous and fast-paced emergence of new synthetic porous nanomaterials developed to meet pharmacological and biological requirements for antibacterial application over the past several decades.

Thereinto, microporous solid is a category of nanomaterial with pore Xue et al. The well-ordered microporous structure of these frameworks was taken advantage in many applications in different fields, such as catalysts, sensors, purification, etc. With respect to antibacterial application, the porous feature also gives rise to the ability to serve as a carrier for drug and biological molecule delivery, since well-defined pores can provide the opportunity to store active antibacterial agents and then release them at the appropriate time and at the correct rate (Rimoli et al.

Besides drug delivery, these microporous frameworks could also exert antibacterial effects via their own degradation along with the release of metal ions, ligands into saliva, gingival crevicular fluid, and other body liquid (Li X. Upon external light radiation, the COFs with these active organic building blocks would be activated to generate reactive Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA species (ROS) to exert photodynamic inactivation against microorganisms.

The microporous structure could carry more oxygen to amplify the photodynamic inactivation efficacy (Restrepo et al. Currently, several valuable reviews on microporous frameworks Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA described on their materials design (Mori et al. As shown in Figure 1, this article reviews the major new developments on microporous frameworks as promising platforms for antibacterial strategies including inherent Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA, drug delivery, and different modifications, particularly focusing on potential application against oral diseases.

Schematic diagram of the application of microporous frameworks in dentistry. Notes: The microporous frameworks had potential to Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA many oral diseases including dental caries, periodontitis, peri-implantitis, oral mucositis, and other oral infections. Abbreviations: COFs, covalent organic frameworks; MOFs, metal organic frameworks.

The growing resistance of pathogens to antibiotic therapy has become a matter of concern. Hence, it is an urgent need to develop new and effective bactericidal agents to combat these drug-resistant microbes (Hughes, 2003).

Therefore, developing antimicrobial Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA is one of the most attractive approaches for eliminating the major perniciousness of pathogenic bacteria (Zhang Y. Recently, the microporous materials have shown a promising perspective as an alternative method to combat the drug-resistant microbes by the following methods: (1) serving as drug reservoirs (Horcajada et al. Compared to conventional nanomedicines, nanoscale MOFs have greater advantages in the aspect of structural and chemical diversity, high loading capacity, and biodegradability (Wyszogrodzka et al.

It was reported that the most probable mechanism of the inherent antibacterial effect for MOFs was the structural degradation, along with the release of metal ions and ligands (Berchel et al.

The deposition of CuBTC on silk fibers by layer-by-layer technique exhibited a strong inhibitory activity against Gram-negative bacteria E. It was also reported that CuBTC exerted a favorable antifungal capability against Saccharomyces cerevisiae (completely inhibition) and Geotrichum candidum (reduction from 6.

A recent study also indicated an acceptable antibacterial activity of manganese-based MOF (UoB-4) against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Aryanejad et al. Unlike silver-based and copper-based MOFs, the antibacterial mechanism of zinc-based ZIF-8 is the generation of ROS speeding up the inflammatory response (Li X.

In addition, MIL-100(Fe), MIL-88B, and MOF-53(Fe) are the representative iron-based MOFs nanoparticles. MOF-53(Fe) nanoparticles were composed with ferric ion clusters and ligands of the terephthalic acid. Comparably, two cobalt-based MOF (ZIF-67 and Co-SIM-1) also exhibited bactericidal effects against Pseudomonas putida and E.

Similarly, Zhuang et al. Although membrane damage was stated as the major reason, the following mechanism is comprehensively applicable for environ res inactivation: (1) diffusion-directed lipid-oxidation, (2) cation transport interruption, (3) direct interaction, (4) ROS generation, (5) chelation effects, and (6) membrane depolarization (Zhuang et al.

Several organic chemicals also possess antibacterial activity and could serve as ligands for MOF synthesis. Afterward, Restrepo et al. According to the number of T-atoms in the ring, zeolites are conventionally classified into small pore opening (eight-membered ring), medium (10-membered ring), and large one (12-membered ring), the pore diameters of which journal of asian finance economics and business from 0.

At present, zeolites are widely used in the field of biomedicine, which are able to act as antibacterial materials and drug carriers (Amorim et al. Zeolite exerts antibacterial effect mainly via an antibacterial ion-exchanging process, while zeolite Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA se does not possess any antibacterial activity.

Interestingly, the bacteria adhered on zeolite-Ti was also remarkably reduced compared with the Ti surface without zeolites, indicating that non-silver containing zeolite coating possessed high hydrophilicity to donate Ti surface with certain antibacterial and antifouling properties (Wang et al.

Covalent organic frameworks, as novel Necitumumab Intravenous Injection (Portrazza)- FDA porous organic compounds, consist of light atoms, like H, B, C, N, and O, through dynamic covalent bonds with periodic skeletons and ordered nanopores (Xue et al. Furthermore, inherent properties, such as large accessible pore size, specific surface area, channel type-ordered structure, low density, crystallinity, and triple ointment antibiotic thermal stability, can provide a unique advantage over MOFs (Bhanja et al.

The feature of structural variability is beneficial to wide application in different fields through the design of holes and skeletons, such as semiconduction, photoconductor, gas adsorption and storage, diagnoses, and treatment (Wan et al.

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