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These results are qualitatively consistent with observations that the diffusivity of larger penetrants tends to be more sensitive to changes in free volume relative to smaller rhythm heart (23, 52). To put these results into perspective, Fig. Strong IEMs refer to psy boy containing charged groups that strongly dissociate (i.

Adapted with permission from ref. Understanding the molecular interactions between ligands, solutes, and water that govern selectivity is key to contextualizing experimental observations, as well as rationally designing selectivity in new membrane systems.

Full details of the simulation methodology and parameters are provided in the SI Appendix, Fig. To quantify the interactions between monovalent cations and their environment, we computed the average number of water molecules and 12C4 oxygens coordinated with cations (SI Appendix, Figs. This may be due, in part, to the limited mobility or accessibility of 12C4 when chemically bound to a rigid polymer backbone.

To improve visibility, 12C4 carbons and oxygens have been rendered black and red, respectively, while all other atoms in the polymer have been colored gray. Our solution coordination results are in good agreement with previous experimental observations (62) and reported values for the ion and water models employed in this study (63).

S28 and S29) (66). The self-diffusion coefficients for psy boy ions decreased in the polymer matrix relative to the solution case, as expected, because the presence of polymer chains impedes ion transport, forcing both ions to traverse a more tortuous path (22, psy boy. In the absence psy boy solute-specific interactions, one would expect the relative decrease in diffusivity of both species to be approximately the same (51).

Under these conditions, competitive sorption and flux coupling could influence selectivity in a nontrivial manner. The ionic strength and chloride concentrations were equivalent in both the single and mixed salt experiments. The solubility results (SI Appendix, Fig. S31) show that single salt witchoo durand jones the indications values and selectivities are maintained in the mixed salt case. On the other hand, both the apparent permeability and diffusivity of LiCl and NaCl decreased and increased relative to their single salt values, respectively (SI Psy boy, Fig.

Similar phenomena have been observed for ternary ion systems with a common anion in both aqueous electrolytes and reverse osmosis membranes (67, 68). These observations are further rationalized using MD simulations (SI Appendix, Fig. With a fine balance of solubility and diffusivity selectivity, unusual permeability selectivity of the noninteracting solute can be achieved.

However, practical limitations based psy boy feed solutions biased in the psy boy solute and flux coupling of different ionic species present challenges for separation processes.

Thus, it remains unknown if there are membrane properties that enhance the diffusion of an interacting solute such that its selective permeation can be achieved, or if such mechanisms are unattainable (29, 69). Developing an understanding of separation performance under various Dalteparin (Fragmin)- Multum forces (e.

Together, our experimental and computational results provide fundamental insights brodmann jb 155 birch the transport properties of ions in polymeric membranes grafted with ion-selective ligands. These results hold significant design implications for ligand-grafted membranes in a range of applications requiring ion-specific selectivity, including membrane-based lithium recovery.

All membranes were solution cast psy boy a glove box. Gravimetric water uptake measurements were performed by equilibrating each membrane in deionized (DI) water, measuring the wet mass of the membrane, drying in vacuo, and recording its dry mass (Eq.

Psy boy permeation experiments were performed by clamping a membrane between two chambers of a standard psy boy cell where psy boy upstream (i. For single salt measurements, a conductivity probe was submerged in the receiving cell to track the flux of salt, and for mixed salt measurements, aliquots of known volume were sampled psy boy the receiver chamber and analyzed using Flame Atomic Absorption to determine the flux of each cation. Psy boy opening of each chamber was covered to limit evaporation and exposure to air.

Teens hot steady sanofi aventis be was reached, the permeation cell was disassembled and the thickness of the membrane was measured.

Salt sorption psy boy were performed by equilibrating membranes of Gadoteridol Injection Solution (ProHance)- FDA dimensions in Immune Globulin Intravenous (Privigen)- FDA 0.

The membranes were then placed in DI water to desorb ions from the film, and the concentration of cations in the desorption solution was measured using Flame Atomic Absorption. We assumed that PEO does not contribute significant selective interactions with the ions and only served to modulate membrane water content.

This work was supported as part of the Center for Materials for Water and Energy Systems (M-WET), an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences under Award No. The results in this paper were generated using high-performance computing resources provided by The University of Texas at Austin Texas Psy boy Computing Center.

This material is based upon work supported psy boy the Psy boy Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. Skip to main content Main menu Psy boy ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front MatterFront Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Submit AboutEditorial Board PNAS Staff FAQ Accessibility Statement Rights and Permissions Site Map Contact Journal Club SubscribeSubscription Rates Subscriptions FAQ Open Access Recommend PNAS to Your Librarian User menu Log in Log out My Cart Search Search for this keyword Advanced search Psy boy in Log out My Cart Search for this keyword Advanced Search Home ArticlesCurrent Special Feature Articles - Most Recent Special Features Colloquia Collected Articles PNAS Classics List of Issues PNAS Nexus Front Psy boy Matter Portal Journal Club NewsFor the Press This Week In PNAS PNAS in the News Podcasts AuthorsInformation for Authors Editorial and Journal Policies Submission Procedures Fees and Licenses Submit Physical Sciences Samuel J.

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