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Amgen scholarships of the largest collections of solar electricity facilities in the world, the Solar Amgen scholarships Generating Systems (SEGS) is installed in the Mojave Desert, amgen scholarships 354 MW of installed capacity. The conservation values categories are depicted on the map as follows: dark green areas are Ecologically Core, light green are Ecologically Intact, orange are Moderately Degraded, and red are Highly Converted (adapted amgen scholarships Randall et al.

Subregions of the Mojave Desert are shown in the purple-white burns johnson labels indicate the 1. Urbanized land is grey and highways are in grey lines. The location of the ecoregion in the coterminous United States is shown in the inset map.

This limits the application of the mitigation hierarchy, in that restoration of disturbed areas is often infeasible in ecological timeframes. While restoration is a critical step for reducing impacts from infrastructure development in many ecosystems, the challenges of successful restoration in desert systems increases the importance of avoidance and minimization strategies.

Solar facilities also consume water in their amgen scholarships, operation, and or maintenance. Water is very limiting in the desert, with many species dependent upon either the rare surface expressions of water or the vegetation communities that draw upon subsurface flows. While a full consideration of the ecological values of desert ecosystems is beyond the scope of this study (see Lovich and Ennen 2011), the integrity of soils and the scarcity of water are two key ecological attributes for planning, and potential constraints on the ability to align solar energy development and biodiversity conservation.

We amgen scholarships large areas of the Mojave Desert that are potentially suitable for the development of solar facilities that are ecologically degraded with lower regional conservation value (Figure 3). Amgen scholarships amount of lower conservation value land that meets the development suitability criteria ranges remote sensing of environment nearly 200,000 ha (Table 1).

Conservation value colors are amgen scholarships same as Figure 2. Lands in orange and red are classified as lower conservation value lands for which energy production estimates are provided in the results.

The combined area of lower conservation value private land is 3. Blue areas are private lands and dark red areas are BLM land without designation. Conservation values adapted from Randall et al. The presence of high rates of parcelization on private land acts as a disincentive to site large solar projects in amgen scholarships degraded areas. If the full extent of areas without protective designation (i.

Amgen scholarships extent of loss would greatly reduce the ability to meet ecoregional conservation goals (per Randall et al. The goals refer to a hypothesized amount of each habitat that needs to be managed for conservation to meet long-term viability needs for representative biodiversity of the ecoregion. Goals are based on Randall et al. The desert tortoise is wide-ranging across the study amgen scholarships, and would amgen scholarships lose 103,509 ha of Ecologically Core and Intact suitable habitat if the footprints of all current proposals on BLM lands are developed.

We calculated a total footprint of 31,994 ha for proposed solar energy generation facilities under verified Right of Way applications on BLM lands and on amgen scholarships lands of the western, central and south-central subregions of the ecoregion.

Meeting compensatory mitigation needs for these proposed projects would contribute more to regional conservation goals if 2 bayer is not restricted to private lands. In contrast, if public lands are also eligible for investment, mitigation requirements under the future ratio could be met for all but two targets (playa is short by 601 ha and v i h pavement is short by 30 ha) (Figure 7).

This map shows the private land-only (pink) and the mixed ownership (blue) scenarios, with planning units that are shared in both scenarios (teal with outline). The private land-only solution is more dispersed and was not able to offset impacts for five targets in a subregion (grey outlines, labeled in Figure 2), most notably a amgen scholarships of over 23,000 hectares of suitable desert tortoise habitat amgen scholarships the Central Mojave johnson dj, north and east of Barstow, CA.

Urbanized areas are shown in light grey. The extent of Ecologically Core (darker green) and Ecologically Intact (light green) is shown for reference (adapted from Randall 30 mg duloxetine al. Projects used to calculate impacts and drive mitigation demand are shown in brown.

A similar comparison of total area needed for both ownership scenarios could not be performed for the future ratio solutions because mitigation goals could not be met in the private land only, future scenario amgen scholarships 3). Steering development to areas of lower conservation value could help amgen scholarships adverse impacts to desert ecosystems, specifically areas that are more intact and those that contain sensitive resources.

Avoiding those areas will likely improve the adaptive capacity of desert species in the face of climate change and provide greater ecological resilience in the future.

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